The answer to why outdoor antennas, even those that can work indoors, don’t.
The answer is because they don’t have a ground plane.
The basic theory is that a single antenna can work in one place, but the ground plane of that antenna is much larger than that of a pair of coaxial coaxials.
The ground plane in the case of outdoor antennas can only be large enough to handle the high impedance of coaxials, which is typically higher than that used in coaxial cable systems.
If the ground planes are too small, the coaxial cables are not designed to transmit.
In addition, when you connect an outdoor antenna to an indoor one, it will get a signal that is far lower than the signal you get with coaxial.
This article explains the theory behind why an antenna is useless outdoors.